We are passionate about psychotherapy, and part of our mission is to learn as much as we can about treatment so we can better understand what does and does not work.

The research has been approved by the Institutional Research Board, University of Maryland. For any questions or concerns, contact the IRB Office at 301-405-4512 or email

Published Research from MPCRL

Since we opened the clinic in 2008, we have served about 150 clients for long-term individual psychodynamic psychotherapy and have trained 26 doctoral student therapists with intensive individual and group supervision, so we have both provided needed services to the local community and we have trained doctoral students. In addition, the following 7 publications have come out of the clinic, with another 10 projects almost ready to be submitted or in preparation:

  1. Hill, C. E., Chui, H., Huang, T., Jackson, J., Liu, J., Spangler, P. (2011). Hitting the wall: A case study of interpersonal changes in psychotherapy. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 11, 34-42.
  2. Hill, C. E., Gelso, C. J., Gerstenblith, J., Chui, H., Pudasaini, S., Burgard, J., Baumann, E., & Huang, T. (2013). The dreamscape of psychodynamic psychotherapy: Dreams, dreamers, dream work, consequences, and cases. Dreaming, 23, 1-45.
  3. Huang, T. C., Hill, C. E., & Gelso, C. J. (2013). Psychotherapy engagers versus non-engagers: Differences in alliance, therapist skills, client attachment. Psychotherapy Research, 23, 568-577.
  4. Hill, C. E., Gelso, C. J., Chui, H., Spangler, P., Hummel, A., Huang, T., Jackson, J., Jones, R., Palma, B., Bhatia, A., Gupta, S., Ain, S., Klingaman, B., Lim, R., Liu, J., Hui, K., Jezzi, M., & Miles, J. R., (2014). To be or not to be immediate with clients: The use and perceived effects of immediacy in psychodynamic/interpersonal psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Research, 299-315.
  5. Hill, C. E., Knox, S., Crook-Lyon, R. E., Hess, S. A., Miles, J., Spangler, P., & Pudasaini, S. (2014). Dreaming of you: Client and therapist dreams about each other during psychodynamic psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Research, 523-537.
  6. Hill, C. E., Baumann, E., Shafran, N., Gupta, S., Morrison, A., Peres Rojas, A. E., Spangler, P. T., Griffin, S., Pappa, L., &. Gelso, C. J. (2015). Is training effective? A study of counseling psychology doctoral trainees in a psychodynamic/interpersonal training clinic. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62, 184-201.
  7. Robinson, N., Hill, C. E., & Kivlighan, D. (in press). Crying as communication in psychotherapy" The influence of client and therapist attachment and client attachment to therapist on amount and type of crying. Journal of Counseling Psychology.
  8. Pinto-Coelho, K., Hill, C. E., & Kivlighan, D. (2016). Therapist self-disclosures in a psychodynamic clinic: A mixed-methods investigation. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 29, 29-52. doi: 10.1080/09514070.2015.1072496
  9. Baumann, E. C., & Hill, C. E. (2016). Client concealment and disclosure of secrets in outpatient psychotherapy. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 29, 53-75. doi: 10.1080/09514070.2015.1023698
  10. Huang, T., & Hill, C. E. (2016). Corrective relational experiences: Corrective relational experiences in psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy: Antecedents, types, consequences in relation to client attachment style. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63, 183-197. doi 10.1037/cou0000132
  11. Kivlighan, D., Baumann, E., Hill, C. E., & Gelso, C. J. (2016). Working alliance, real relationship, session quality, and client improvement in psychodynamic psychotherapy: A longitudinal actor partner interdependence model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63, 149-161. doi: 10.1037/cou0000134
  12. Chui, H., Hill, C. E., Kline, K., Kuo, P., & Mohr, J. J. (2016). In the mood? Therapist affect and psychotherapy process and outcome.
  13. Kivlighan, D. M. Jr., Kline, K., Gelso, C. J., & Hill, C. E. (2017). Congruence and discrepancy between working alliance and real relationship: Variance decomposition and response surface analyses. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64, 394-409. doi: 10.1037/cou0000-216
  14. Shafran, N., Kivlighan, D. M. Jr., Gelso, C. J., Bhatia, A., & Hill, C. E. (2017). Therapist immediacy: The association with working alliance, real relationship, session quality and time in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Research, 27, 737-748. doi: 10.1080/10503307.2016.1158884
  15. Hill, C. E., Kline, K., Aaron, A., King, S., & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr. (in press). Changes in meaning in life in psychodynamic psychotherapy. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, doi: 10.1080/09515070.2017.1340260
  16. Hill, C. E., & Gupta, S. (in press). Processing the supervision relationship: The use of immediacy. In O. Tishby & H. Wiseman (Eds.), Developing the therapeutic relationship: Integrating case studies, research, and practice. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
  17. Morales, K., Keum, B. T., Kivlighan, D. E. Jr., Hill, C. E., & Gelso, C. J. (2018). Therapist effects due to client racial/ethnic status when examining linear growth for client-and therapist-rated working alliance and real relationship. Psychotherapy, 55, 9-19. doi: 10.1037/pst0000135
  18. Hill, C. E., Kline, K., Aaron, A., King, S., & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr. (in press). Changes in meaning in life in psychodynamic psychotherapy. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, doi: 10.1080/09515070.2017.1340260
  19. Gupta, S., Hill, C. E., & Kivlighan, D. M. Jr. (in press). Client laughter in psychodynamic psychotherapy: Not a laughing matter. Journal of Counseling Psychology,
  20. Kivlighan, D.M. Jr., Hill, C. E., Kline, K., Ross, K., Fuhrmann, A., & Sauber, L. (in press). Test of a mediation model of psychodynamic psychotherapy process and outcome: Previous client distress, psychodynamic techniques, dyadic working alliance, and current client distress. Psychotherapy Research, doi: 10.1080/10503307.2017.1420923
  21. O'Connor, S., Kivlighan, D. M. Jr., Hill, C. E., & Gelso, C. J. (in press). Therapist-client agreement about their working alliance: Associations with attachment styles. Journal of Counseling Psychology,

Financial support for the MPCRL has been provided by:

  1. The Department of Psychology
  2. The Society for Counseling Psychology
  3. The DreamScience Foundation of the International Asssociation for the Study of Dreams
  4. The Fund for Psychoanalytic Research of the American Psychoanalytic Association
  5. Bruce and Barbara Fretz
  6. The Norine Johnson Research Award from Division 29 (Psychotherapy) of the American Psychological Association